Racism & Class
The below video is a brief and (hopefully) accessible introduction to the ways in which racism overlaps with class. The material underpinnings of racism are often ignored, and class can sometimes be coopted as something that only disadvantages white people. The video draw on UK and US evidence of property and wealth inequalities. Full sources are below.
Adesina, Z., & Marocico, O. (2017, February 6). Adam or Mohamed – who gets the job? BBC News. https://www.bbc.com/news/uk-england-london-38751307
Bertrand, M., & Mullainathan, S. (2004). Are Emily and Greg More Employable than Lakisha and Jamal? A Field Experiment on Labor Market Discrimination. The American Economic Review, 94(4), 991–1013. JSTOR.
Booth, A., Leigh, A., & Varganova, E. (2009). Does Racial and Ethnic Discrimination Vary Across Minority Groups?: Evidence from Three Experiments. Institute for Cultural Diversity Sidney, Australia.
Carlsson, M., & Rooth, D.-O. (2007). Evidence of ethnic discrimination in the Swedish labor market using experimental data. Labour Economics, 14(4), 716–729.
Oreopoulos, P. (2011). Why Do Skilled Immigrants Struggle in the Labor Market? A Field Experiment with Thirteen Thousand Resumes. American Economic Journal: Economic Policy, 3(4), 148–171. https://doi.org/10.1257/pol.3.4.148
Wood, M., Hales, J., Purdon, S., Sejersen, T., & Hayllar, O. (2009). A test for racial discrimination in recruitment practice in British cities (p. 69) [Research Report No 607]. Department of Work & Pensions. https://www.iser.essex.ac.uk/research/publications/512874
Zschirnt, E., & Ruedin, D. (2016). Ethnic discrimination in hiring decisions: a meta-analysis of correspondence tests 1990–2015. Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, 42(7), 1115–1134. https://doi.org/10.1080/1369183X.2015.1133279
Full video references
•Akala (2018). Natives: Race and Class in the Ruins of Empire. London: Two Roads.
•Ashe, Borkowska & Nazroo, (2019). Racism ruins lives. TUC. http://hummedia.manchester.ac.uk/institutes/code/research/projects/racism-at-work/tuc-full-report.pdf
•Coates, T. (2014). The case for reparations. The Atlantic. Accessed 3rd January 2016 from http://www.theatlantic.com/magazine/archive/2014/06/the-case-for-reparations/361631/
•DWP (2009). Test for racial discrimination. http://www.natcen.ac.uk/media/20541/test-for-racial-discrimination.pdf
•Fraser, N. (1995). From redistribution to recognition? Dilemmas of justice in a “post‐socialist” age. New Left Review, I(212).
•Gerard, L. (2016). The Press and immigration: reporting the news or fanning the flames of hatred? SubScribe, Retrieved 11th February 2020 from: http://www.sub-scribe.co.uk/2016/09/the-press-and-immigration-reporting.html
•Khan, O. (2017). Race and class from analysis to what next. (pg. 24-27). In Minority Report: Race and class in post-Brexit Britain. Runnymede Perspectives: London.
•Khan, O. (2019). Racism still festers in Britain’s workplace: Its time to get tough. The Guardian https://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2019/jan/22/racism-britain-workplaces-diversity-training-employers-sanctions
•Kraus, Rucker & Richeson (2017). Americans misperceive racial economic equality. PNAS, 114, 39, 10324-10331
•McGregor-Smith (2017). Race in the workplace: The McGregor-Smith Review https://assets.publishing.service.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/594336/race-in-workplace-mcgregor-smith-review.pdf
•Rich, J. (2014). What do field experiments of discrimination in markets tell us? A meta-analysis of studies conducted since 2000. IZA, 8584
•Refugee Action (n.d.). Lift The Ban https://www.refugee-action.org.uk/lift-the-ban/ •Rodney, W. (1972). How Europe Underdeveloped Africa. Available online at: http://abahlali.org/files/3295358-walter-rodney.pdf
•This American Life: Episode 573: Status Update [Podcast] https://www.thisamericanlife.org/radio-archives/episode/573/status-update?act=3 [Important example of the intersection of racism & class in the US]
•The Princes’ Responsible Business Network (2015) ‘Race at work 2015’ survey report https://www.cumberlandlodge.ac.uk/sites/default/files/public/Business%20in%20the%20Community%20-%20Race%20at%20Work%202015%20Report.pdf
•Tippet et al (n.d.). Beyond Broke. Accessed 3rd January 2016 http://globalpolicysolutions.org/wp-content/uploads/2014/04/BeyondBroke_Exec_Summary.pdf •Traub et al (n.d.). Why policy matters. Accessed 20th February 2017 from http://www.demos.org/sites/default/files/publications/RacialWealthGap_2.pdf
•UK Government (2018). Home ownership. Ethnicity facts and figures https://www.ethnicity-facts-figures.service.gov.uk/housing/owning-and-renting/home-ownership/latest
•UK Government (2018). Average Hourly Pay.Ethnicity facts and figures https://www.ethnicity-facts-figures.service.gov.uk/work-pay-and-benefits/pay-and-Income/ Employment /average-hourly-pay/latest
•UK Government (2018). State support. Ethnicity facts and figures. https://www.ethnicity-facts-figures.service.gov.uk/work-pay-and-benefits/benefits/state-support/latest